1625 - Charles I succeeds his father, James I. 1626 - Parliament attempts to impeach the Duke of Buckingham and is dissolved by Charles. 1627 - England goes to war with France, but at La Rochelle the Duke of Buckingham fails to relieve the besieged Huguenots. 1628 - The Petition of Right a declaration of the “rights and liberties of the subject" is presented to the King, who agrees to it under protest. 1628 - Physician William Harvey demonstrates the circulation of blood in the body 1629 - Charles dissolves Parliament and rules by himself until 1640. 1630 - The colony of Massachusetts is founded in America 1633 - Work begins on Buckingham Palace in London 1637 - Charles tries to force new prayer book on Scots, who resist by signing the National Covenant. 1639 - Act of Toleration in England established religious toleration 1640 - Charles summons the Short Parliament, which he dissolves three weeks later when it refuses to grant him money. 1640 - Long Parliament summoned, which lasts until 1660. It can only be dissolved by its members. 1641 - Abolition of the Star Chamber and Court of High Commission. 1642 - Charles fails in his attempt to arrest five MPs. 1642 - Outbreak of Civil War. Charles raises his standard at Nottingham. The Royalists win a tactical victory the Parliamentary army at the Battle of Edgehill but the outcome is inconclusive. 1643 - Royalists defeat Parliamentary army at Chalgrove Field, and take Bristol. Battle of Newbury is indecisive. 1644 - York is besieged by Parliamentary army until relieved by Prince Rupert. Royalists defeated at Marston Moor. 1644 - Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans enforce and Act of Parliament banning Christmas Day celebrations 1645 - Parliament creates New Model Army, which defeats the Royalist army at Naseby on 16 June. 1646 - Charles surrenders to the Scots, who hand him over to Parliament. 1646 - Negotiations take place between King and Parliament. King conspires with Scots to invade England on his behalf. 1647 - Charles escapes to the Isle of Wight but is captured. He is tried by Parliament and found guilty of high treason. 1648 - A Scots army supporting Charles is defeated at Preston. 1649 - Charles I is executed. There follows 11 years of rule by Parliament as the Commonwealth under Cromwell.